Car workshop
0 View
Article Rating
1 звезда2 звезды3 звезды4 звезды5 звезд

How do pilots stay calm?

Pilot Job Descriptions, Average Salary, Interview Questions

Pilots are highly trained professionals who operate aircraft during flights. They are responsible for ensuring the safety of passengers, crew, and the aircraft itself. In order to ensure a safe and efficient flight, pilots must follow strict protocols and regulations. They can work for private companies, government agencies, or commercial airlines. Their role can vary depending on the employer and the type of aircraft they operate. While commercial airline pilots work in teams and fly long distances, private pilots tend to operate smaller aircraft and have more flexible schedules.

Individuals in this profession must have excellent hand-eye coordination, problem-solving skills, and the ability to stay calm when under pressure. It is imperative that they are able to communicate effectively with ground crew, air traffic controllers, and other crew members. Becoming a pilot requires extensive training and education. They must pass multiple exams and complete flight school in order to earn their commercial pilot’s license. In addition to maintaining their skills, pilots must also keep up with industry regulations and technology.

Are you a job seeker?

Browse zengig’s
comprehensive list
of job openings
and apply online

  1. What Does a Pilot Do?
  2. National Average Salary
  3. Pilot Job Descriptions
  4. Sample Interview Questions

National Average Salary

Pilot salaries vary by experience, industry, organization size, and geography. To explore salary ranges by local market, please visit our sister site

The average U.S. salary for a Pilot is: $100,400

Pilot Job Descriptions

Example 1

ABC Air, a wholly-owned subsidiary DEF Airlines, takes pride in delivering a safe, reliable, and customer-focused travel experience. Flying as DEF Airline Connection, ABC Air operates more than 900 daily flights to 140 destinations in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. Headquartered in (city, state). With a culture built on safety, excellence, and teamwork, ABC Air offers limitless potential for aviation professionals looking to start or continue their careers. Direct Entry Captains at ABC Air are hired for their leadership and technical expertise. This is a great opportunity for Captains who are looking for a great company culture and guaranteed career advancement opportunities to DEF Airlines. Captains have ultimate responsibility for the safe, efficient, and customer-focused operation of ABC aircraft. Captains conduct flight operations in strict compliance with company policies, procedures, and federal regulations.


  • Demonstrates collaborative crew leadership while ensuring the safe, efficient, customer-focused operation of the aircraft.
  • Ensure the aircraft is operated in full compliance with policies, procedures, regulations, and safety guidance.
  • With a focus on customer service, effectively communicate with customers verbally while making public announcements and providing safety and policy-related instructions and timely informational updates to ensure our customers’ needs are met.
  • Uses superior judgment to conduct safe and efficient flights in company aircraft.
  • Maintain a high level of knowledge in the following areas Company Policy and Manuals, FAA Regulations, Operations Specifications, and other technical data appropriate to aircraft operations.
  • Maintain a high level of personal decorum, professional conduct, and personal appearance.
  • Maintain currency requirements with regard to medical, training, and hourly flight requirements.
  • Maintain awareness of crew legality requirements and ensures timely communication to Chief Pilot’s Office when status is in question.
  • Maintain required communication with maintenance and dispatch personnel when conducting flights.
  • Provide crew communication reports and crew incident reports to the Base Chief Pilot’s office when required or requested.
  • Attend company training events to maintain currency.
  • Adhere to complete approved company uniform, company materials and flight kit as outlined in the Flight Operations Manual (FOM). Including but not limited to policy on dress code, appearance guidelines including no visible tattoos.
  • Provide Chief Pilot’s Office with any information regarding the safety of flight.
  • Other duties as assigned.
  • Proven leadership skills
  • Exceptional customer service skills and abilities


  • Federal Communication Commission (FCC) Radio License
  • Hold an FAA multi-engine ATP certificate
  • Have at least 2,000 total flying hours
  • Have at least 1,000 hours of air carrier experienced as defined by FAR 121.436
  • Must have an Airline Transport Pilot (ATP) OR ability to obtain an ATP or Restricted ATP
  • Current FAA First Class Medical
  • Must be at least 23 years of age
  • High school diploma, GED or equivalent.
  • Possess and maintain a valid passport and equivalent travel documents to freely enter and exit all destinations where ABC Air flies.
  • Legally authorized to work in the United States
  • Must be able to read, write, fluently speak and understand the English language
  • Possess excellent interpersonal and cognitive skills
  • Must be able to work any shift, including days, nights, weekends, and holidays
  • Ability to successfully pass a comprehensive Company, FAA and DOT required pre-employment screening, criminal background check, drug test, motor vehicle driving record (MVR), and PRIA records check.

Physical requirements

  • Ability to reach into overhead bins and retrieve stored items
  • Ability to walk and fit comfortably down the aircraft aisle and fit quickly through any exit.
  • Ability to hear and respond to customer and crew communications in situations with high background noise
  • Ability to lift/carry up to 50 pounds
  • Ability to stand or sit for long periods of time
What does red dot on car mean?

Example 2

Do you have the fortitude, enthusiasm, and a can-do attitude that personifies an aviation professional? If so, then you might be the kind of crewmember we’re looking for? ABC company is searching for a distinctive kind of person who will help define who we are, while transporting our customers to destinations in the Caribbean, Central America, and South America in our modern fleet of aircraft.


  • Guarantee a safe and pleasant ABC company experience for all.
  • Safely assist the Captain in operating the aircraft in accordance with all Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) and company policies and procedures.
  • Display a passion for customer service and for bringing a refreshing perspective to the airline industry.
  • May perform other responsibilities as assigned. Responsibilities and duties may change when circumstances dictate (e.g., emergencies change in workload, rush jobs, or technical developments).

Minimum requirements

  • 1,500 hours total time.
  • Current Unrestricted Airline Transport Pilot License with multi-engine land.
  • Current FAA First Class Medical Certificate.
  • FCC Radio Telephone Operator Permit.
  • Valid passport/documents with at least six (6) months of validity that grants you the ability to travel in and out of the USA and all cities/countries served by ABC company now and in the future.
  • Legal right to work in the United States.

Preferred requirements

  • 2,500 hours total time in fixed-wing aircraft.
  • 750 hours in multi-engine, turboprop, or jet aircraft.
  • Undergraduate degree from an Accredited Four-Year College or University.
  • Experience in 121 airlines or turbojet aircraft.
  • Experience in aircraft equipped with EFIS and/or FMS.
  • Instructor/Check Airman experience.

Example 3

Supports aircraft Captain by ensuring safe and timely piloting of aircraft and performing other aircraft management duties.

Essential duties

To perform this job successfully, an individual must be able to perform each essential duty satisfactorily. Reasonable accommodation will be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions. Other duties may be assigned to this position as needed.

  • Provides the Captain with proper planning of each flight utilizing all applicable weather information and reports in accordance with Company policies and procedures and Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs).
  • Determines that the aircraft is air-worthy in accordance with FARs and Company policies and procedures; completes appropriate preflight inspections.
  • Along with the Captain, ensures the flight is planned and fueled properly so that the flight may be conducted safely and in accordance with policies and regulations.
  • Safely, properly and effectively operates the aircraft during the designated period of duty in accordance with the Captain’s instruction, FARs, and Company policies and procedures.
  • Maintains a thorough working knowledge of the equipment operated, FARs governing the operation of equipment, and manuals, policies, procedures, and other instructions.
  • Notifies crew and passengers of turbulent weather conditions or any other operational factors affecting the flight.
  • Completes the load manifest for each flight.
  • Contributes to a reliable and on-time operation by assisting the Captain in meeting all report times, departure times, and minimum turn times.
  • While at the terminal, assists with and ensures proper handling of aircraft, passengers, baggage, and cargo.
  • Maintains regular and reliable attendance according to Company procedures and practices.
  • Presents a professional appearance and adheres to the Company uniform dress code.
  • Conducts self professionally at all times while on duty and observes the Rules of Conduct for all associates as outlined in the Flight Operations Manual, Associate Handbook and other related policies and procedures.
  • Continues professional training towards upgrading performance and abilities.
  • Performs other duties as assigned by the Company and the Captain.

Education and experience

  • High School diploma or GED.
  • Must meet the minimum requirements for an ATP or RATP certificate.
  • ATP written is preferred.
  • Meet the current interview and hiring minimum age and flight hours requirements set by the FAA and Company.

Language skills

Ability to read, analyze, interpret and understand technical procedures and governmental regulations, sometimes quickly and under stressful or emergency situations. Able to effectively present information to and respond to questions from management, dispatch, crew, passengers, air traffic control, and the general public. Able to speak and be understood in English, including shouted verbal commands during emergency situations.

Physical demands

  • Able to climb, balance, stoop, kneel, crouch, squat and/or crawl.
  • Able to sit without standing for long periods of time.
  • Capable of lifting or moving items at different heights weighing up to 75 pounds.
  • Able to adhere to the visual demands set in the medical standards established by the FAA.
  • Able to hear clearly verbal communications in person, on the telephone, and over a headset with ambient aircraft and passenger noise.
  • Possess the stamina needed to work long days, on sequential days, with frequent change in temperatures, climate and weather conditions.
  • Must be able to move about the aircraft and perform all required functions freely, effectively and quickly in confined environment.
  • Must be able to sit in pilot’s seat or assigned jump seat with seatbelt and shoulder harness fastened without any modifications.

Travel requirements

Travel up to 100% of the time, including nights, weekends, holidays, and overnight stays. Able to work extended hours with lack of scheduling control and be ready to report to work with little notice. Willing to relocate based on the Company’s operational needs.

Is pilot a good job for female?

Sample Interview Questions

  • What type of aircraft have you flown, and what has been your experience as a pilot?
  • Flying can be stressful. What do you do to remain calm under pressure?
  • What experience do you have with flight planning, navigation, and scheduling?
  • To maintain safety standards, what protocols do you follow in order to ensure a safe and efficient flight?
  • What is the most important factor in terms of fuel conservation for a jet engine?
  • While meeting the needs and expectations of passengers and clients, how do you prioritize safety?
  • How do you ensure that aircraft are in proper condition before and after flights? What is your experience with aircraft maintenance and inspections?
  • How do you communicate with other crew members, air traffic controllers, and ground personnel during flight?
  • How did you handle a situation where you had to make a quick decision on a flight?
  • Your captain doesn’t understand a clearance and is about to violate a regulation. You try to clarify, and they still don’t agree. What should you do?
  • How would you handle a situation where a mechanical error occurred during a flight?

Need help hiring a Pilot?

We match top professionals with great employers across the country. From filling urgent job openings to developing long-term hiring strategies, our team is here to help. Review our staffing solutions, browse our award-winning Staffing Corner blog, or call today. We look forward to connecting with you soon.

Browse A-Z Job Descriptions

Turbulence anxiety? Here’s how to stay calm on a bumpy flight

Unless it’s your first time flying, as an air passenger you will have experienced turbulence at some point. In most cases, it’s just a brief rocking of the plane, or the prolonged bumpiness that leaves you unsteady on your feet and triggers the seat belt sign. Occasionally, though, a sudden bout of turbulence can catch you by surprise. Your stomach drops, drinks are spilled and, in severe cases, someone gets injured.

Turbulence is an inevitable part of flying and for nervous travellers it adds to the stress of the journey. The good news is that there really is nothing to worry about. Here’s what you need to know.

Main photo: pilots can use their instruments to check for turbulence (Getty Images)

A pilot on the flight deck of an airliner - modern aircraft are unlikely to be brought down by turbulence

What is turbulence?

Turbulence is basically a change in the air around a plane that causes it to rock or occasionally drop.

Think of it like this: the plane is travelling forward at constant speed and then there’s a sudden change in the resistance against the aircraft. It might be because of a sudden lack of wind, a surprise gust of wind, a change in the speed of the wind, or a change in wind direction.

If the change is big enough, it will cause the plane to suddenly lurch forward, unexpectedly slow down or perhaps jolt from side to side — the same as would happen to you if you were walking on a particularly windy day.

Because of this, smaller planes generally experience turbulence more. They’re much lighter, which means they get pulled around more than large aircraft. They also tend to fly at lower altitudes where there might be more changes in the air.

A propellor aircraft in Iceland - small planes are much more likely to experience turbulence than large ones

What are the causes of turbulence?

Essentially anything that might cause a change in the air, and in particular the wind around a plane.

Flying through a storm, for example, can be particularly rough as the plane will encounter different levels of resistance as it moves through heavy clouds and can be swayed by wind coming from different directions and at different speeds.

Flights over high mountains can also be particularly bumpy. This is often caused by an updraft as wind lower down hits the mountains and moves up vertically.

A similar updraft might be caused when the ground below heats up during the day and rises to meet the cold air above — this is one of the reasons why a night flight might be smoother.

Journeys over the equator are known to be bumpy as well. Here, winds from the northern and southern hemisphere collide, different temperatures come together and there can be more frequent storms — and they can all combine in a perfect recipe for turbulence.

A plane over the Alps - flying over high mountains can cause turbulence

And then there are the other planes. As one plane moves through the air, it will cause disturbances similar to the wake from boats, which can mean extra bumpiness for aircraft nearby.

Commercial aircraft fly at high enough altitude to avoid most pockets of turbulence. Pilots can also use different weather instruments to check for turbulence and make adjustments to avoid them. Even then, they can come expectedly, and that’s why it’s always advisable to keep your seatbelt fastened when you’re sitting down or even when you’re lying down and sleeping.

Is turbulence dangerous?

Historically, turbulence has been known to cause structural damage to planes but aircraft have come a long way since then. What’s more, in particularly bad weather, a flight would simply be cancelled, and in a weather-related emergency, it would be diverted to the nearest airport to reduce the risks. In other words, there are lots of processes in place to keep flying safe.

Will I have Hashimotos forever?

What can cause injury is when severe turbulence unexpectedly strikes — passengers who aren’t strapped in might hit their head, as has been known to happen in the past. Overhead lockers might pop open and cause luggage to fall out and cause injury. You can reduce the chances of injury by booking a seat away from the aisles and keeping your seat belt on at all times, but both of those scenarios are extremely rare.

Watching the entertainment on a flight - if you

Can turbulence bring down a plane?

This is extremely unlikely. Modern aircraft are equipped with instruments that will correct the course of the flight when it’s disturbed and the plane itself is designed to withstand turbulence.

For nervous flyers, the best thing to do is strap yourself in and take your mind off the flight, whether that’s listening to a podcast or taking a quick nap. Breathing exercises can also help during particularly testing points of the journey. Many airlines, including BA and Virgin, run courses for those scared of flying and it’s certainly worth attending one if you’re particularly worried.

From engine fires to systems failures: How pilots manage emergency situations

Charlie Page is a senior first officer on the Boeing 787 Dreamliner with over 10,000 hours of flying experience, both around Europe on the A320 family and worldwide on the B787. He is also a freelance writer, contributing to a range of print and online publications.

July 19, 2020
14 min read

Southwest Airlines Emergency Landing

Jump to section
Copy URL

This post contains references to products from one or more of our advertisers. We may receive compensation when you click on links to those products. Terms apply to the offers listed on this page. For an explanation of our Advertising Policy, visit this page.

The night of December 29, 1972 was instrumental in improving flight safety for passengers and pilots alike. Making their approach to Miami International Airport (MIA), it was just another flight for the pilots of Eastern flight 401. In preparation for landing, they moved the landing gear lever to the down position. However, the light which indicates that the nose gear is in the down and locked position failed to illuminate green.

In order to troubleshoot the problem, the crew decided to break off the approach and climb back up to 2,000 feet. To reduce their workload, they entered a holding pattern to the west of the airport over the Everglades. The first officer, who was responsible for flying the aircraft on that sector, then engaged the Autopilot to reduce the workload further.

However, both pilots (and the flight engineer) became engrossed in trying to fix the problem. As the captain issued instructions, the first officer tried to move the gear indicator, but to no avail. The green light just would not illuminate. The more time went on, the more the crew became obsessed with the problem.

All of a sudden, the first officer looked at the altimeter and realized that they were no longer at 2,000 feet. Instead, they were just a few feet above the Everglade swamp. The Autopilot had become disconnected and because all three crew members were fixated on solving the problem, no one noticed to slow descent toward the ground.

Whilst many safety systems such as GPWS have been incorporated into modern aircraft in the 50 years since the crash, the principle of «who’s flying the aircraft?» still holds firm today.

At all times during a flight, one of the pilot’s sole responsibility is to ensure the safe flight path of the aircraft, no matter what else is going on. This is particularly important when it comes to emergency situations.

The natural urge is to get involved and help solve the issue. However, this will often make the problem worse. As a result, pilots are trained to take a step back from the flashing lights and treat all non-normal and emergency situations in a calm and methodical fashion.

Aviate, navigate, communicate

I’ve mentioned “The Chimp Paradox” by Dr. Steve Peters, in previous articles. It states that inside us still live our original ancestors, the ones who behave like any other animal in the jungle.

Sign up for our daily newsletter

When that ancestor felt threatened, the immediate reaction of its brain was the “fight or flight” impulse. Do I stay and fight or do I run away? When something untoward or surprising happens to us today, that inner chimp still reigns supreme as panic takes over.

When flying an airliner and an engine suddenly catches fire in the middle of the night, it’s only natural for the chimp to control our initial emotions. Red lights are flashing and warning alarms are going off. However, with 300 lives on board, we rarely get a second chance to rectify an instinctive poor decision. What we must do is put the chimp back in its cage to allow us to think rationally.

Should you drive home after a MRI?

The best way to do this is to have a structure we can always fall back on. A structure which will help us calm down and give us time to evaluate the situation properly and it comes in three steps.


When a non-normal event occurs, the first thing we must do is ensure that the aircraft is flying safely. As the fateful crew of Eastern 401 discovered, there’s no point in trying to fix a problem if you crash into the ground whilst doing so.

When a crew first become aware of a developing situation, usually from a warning or caution alert, the pilot responsible for flying the aircraft (PF) will state out loud: «I have control.» Whilst this may seem obvious, this clear and unambiguous statement immediately resolves any confusion over who is doing what.

Next, the PF will confirm not only what the aircraft is doing, but make sure that it is doing what they actually want it to be doing. For example, if they were flying manually, would it be a better idea to now engage the Autopilot? In the case of an engine failure, do they need to increase engine power?

Whatever the crew decide to do, the «aviate» part must establish the aircraft in a safe flight path.


With the aircraft flying safely, the next step is to navigate the aircraft to a position which continues to keep us safe. This very much depends on the stage of flight and how well prepared we are.

Pilots are always thinking about the «what if?» scenarios at all stages of flight. By constantly talking to each other, we keep our situational awareness high, ready to put a plan into action should the need arise. A great example of this is in the event of an engine failure over the Atlantic Ocean.

During Oceanic segments of a flight, there are set procedures in the case of a required descent. With this in mind, we always discuss our plan should the need arise to make a descent due to a loss of cabin pressurization, engine failure or need to divert.

As a result, if an emergency does occur, we already know how we’re going to navigate the aircraft away from our route.

Terrain clearance is also critical in these situations, particularly if the even happens soon after takeoff or just before landing. Making sure that the aircraft is at a safe altitude which will ensure terrain clearance is paramount before the crew attempt to deal with the issue at hand.


With the aircraft flying safely, the final element is to communicate. But who with and when?

Understandably, letting Air Traffic Control know that we have a problem is important at some point, but it may not need to be done immediately. In some parts of the world, letting ATC know too soon may result in a barrage of questions which will hamper our efforts to solve the problem.

Likewise, for passengers seeing flames coming out the back of the engine may be pretty alarming, but letting them know what is going on isn’t always high on our list of priorities. Once the situation is under control and we have a plan, then we will speak to them.

Running the checklists

With the aircraft flying safely and the chimp caged, the stress in the flight deck begins to reduce. With lower stress comes clearer decisions, which is ultimately what we’re looking to achieve. We can now start to look at managing the non-normal situation with the aircraft.

Most modern airliners have an electronic checklist (ECL) which automatically displays on the screens when a fault is detected. It is the job of the pilot monitoring (PM) to carry out the checklist whilst the PF continues to fly the aircraft.

The ECL will direct the crew to carry out actions to try and rectify the problem. For example resetting and electric generator. If this does not work and the system stays failed, the checklist will then continue to secure the system and prepare the crew for flight without it.

More often than not this means continuing the flight as there are backup systems, but it may require a diversion in the case of certain system failures.

Whilst the PM caries out the ECL, it’s imperative that the PF does not get distracted from the flying of the aircraft. If the PM needs to the PF to check something, the PF will hand over control of the aircraft to the PM to ensure that they are never both «heads down.»

With the non-normal checklist complete, the crew must then do any remaining normal checklists, such as the after takeoff checklist.

What have we got?

With the checklists completed, it’s time to take stock of the situation. What has happened? What failures did we have? Which systems have we lost? This stage of the process is key to being able to come up with a suitable plan of what to do next.

Can I drive after kidney stent removal?

In the case of multiple faults, there may have been several ECLs to complete. As a result, there may be important information which was missed in the heat of the moment. By running through the alert messages again, we can pick up on these missed items and also start to build a better picture of where we’re at with the situation.

This is also a good time to work out the implications of the failure. If there has been a hydraulics problem, it is likely that the landing distance required is much longer than normal. With that required distance calculated, it will help simplify the decision-making process later on.

Making a decision

There are a number of ways to come up with a decision and some are quicker than others. If the crew suffer an engine failure after takeoff, they may already have come up with a plan during their preflight emergency briefing. If this plan is still viable, there may not be a need to spend time thinking about it again. After all, this is exactly why we carry out an emergency brief.

However, if a problem occurs which the crew were not expecting, it often pays to spend a little time coming up with a plan. Not only is the mnemonic TDODAR useful in aviation, but it can also be useful in many other situations where an evaluated decision is needed.


Time available is always a factor as there is only ever a finite amount of fuel in the tanks. However, «time» doesn’t just refer to fuel available. A good question to ask the other pilot is «how urgent do you think this is?».

An engine fire which won’t extinguish is far more urgent than a minor flight control computer fault. This establishment of urgency will make it clear how much time we have to run this process and make a decision.


It may be easy to simply see this as «what happened?» but that’s of little use when trying to decide what to do next. Instead, asking ourselves questions such as «what does this mean?» and «what equipment do I have left?» will be far more useful.

If there has been a failure of some of the navigation equipment, it may mean that we are unable to land at an airport with poor visibility. This will then aid us in the next section.


When we know the situation we are facing and what tools we have available to us, we can now generate some options. Do we continue the flight? If we have to divert, which airport will be most suitable? What if we do nothing?

This part is made much easier if we have collected all the pertinent information as detailed in the sections above.


In an ideal situation, there will be a number of options to chose from. At other times, there may only be one option available. Whatever the choices, a decision needs to be made. This is where a strong crew dynamic is essential.

The captain needs to be open enough to allow the other crew members to input their ideas, but they also need to be strong enough to make a decision if discussions are just going round in circles. How quickly this needs to be done constantly refers back to the «time» section.

Assign tasks

With a plan decided, it’s time to action it. Between the crew, someone will need to keep flying the aircraft whilst the other person sets the flight management computer up for the approach. They will also have to inform ATC, the flight attendants and passengers of the new plan.


This part is almost more important than everything before. Coming up with a plan is all well and good, but is it still valid? Flying an aircraft is a dynamic situation and things change quickly. A plan which was ideal 20 minutes ago, may no longer be suitable.

Has the weather at the diversion airfield changed? Do we still have enough fuel to get there? Has the sick passenger who we are diverting for made a recovery?

By constantly reviewing the situation, new information may come to light which changes the plan. We must always be open and adaptable to changing the plan at all times.

Bottom line

In all walks of life, when the unexpected happens it is very easy to let our inner chimp take control and react in an instant. However, when flying an aircraft, this evolutionary reaction can often make things worse. As pilots, we need to react in a calm and collected manner to enable us to think clearly and come up with a safe plan.

By using the «aviate, navigate, communicate» process, we not only ensure that the aircraft is flying safely, but we also give ourselves time to breathe deeply and put the chimp back in its cage. With a cool head, we can then work through the problem and come up with a plan which will keep the aircraft and all it’s occupants safe.

Ссылка на основную публикацию