Is there a car with no windows?
Is there a car with no windows?
28-959.01 . Materials on windows or windshield; exceptions; requirements; violation; definitions
A. This section does not apply to:
1. Front side wing vents and windows that have a substance or material in conjunction with glazing material that has a light transmission of thirty-three percent plus or minus three percent and a luminous reflectance of thirty-five percent plus or minus three percent.
2. Front side wing vents and windows that have a substance or material not attached in conjunction with glazing material that is used by a vehicle operator on a moving vehicle during daylight hours as provided in section 28-922.
3. Rearview mirrors.
4. Adjustable nontransparent sun visors that are mounted forward of the side windows and that are not attached to the glass.
5. Signs, stickers or other materials that are either:
(a) Displayed in a seven inch square in the lower corner of the windshield farthest removed from the driver.
(b) Displayed in a five inch square in the lower corner of the windshield nearest the driver.
6. Side windows that are to the rear of the driver and rear windows that have a substance or material in conjunction with glazing material that has a luminous reflectance of thirty-five percent plus or minus three percent or less.
7. Direction, destination or termination signs on a passenger common carrier motor vehicle, if the signs do not interfere with the driver’s clear view of approaching traffic.
8. Rear window wiper motors.
9. A rear trunk lid handle or hinges.
10. The rear window or windows if the motor vehicle is equipped with outside mirrors that are on both left-hand and right-hand sides of the vehicle and that are located in a manner to reflect to the driver a view of the highway through each mirror for a distance of at least two hundred feet to the rear of the motor vehicle.
11. Transparent material that is installed, affixed or applied to the topmost portion of the windshield if:
(a) The bottom edge of the material is at least twenty-nine inches above the undepressed driver’s seat when measured from a point five inches in front of the bottom of the backrest with the driver’s seat in its rearmost and lowermost position with the vehicle on a level surface.
(b) The material is not red or amber in color.
12. Safety monitoring equipment and driver feedback if mounted in either of the following locations:
(a) Immediately behind, slightly above or slightly below the rearview mirror.
(b) Where the rearview mirror would commonly be positioned if the motor vehicle is without a windshield mounted rearview mirror.
B. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a person shall not operate a motor vehicle with an object or material placed, displayed, installed, affixed or applied on the windshield or side or rear windows or with an object or material placed, displayed, installed, affixed or applied in or on the motor vehicle in a manner that obstructs or reduces a driver’s clear view through the windshield or side or rear windows.
C. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a person shall not place, install, affix or apply a transparent material on the windshield or side or rear windows of a motor vehicle if the material alters the color or reduces the light transmittance of the windshield or side or rear windows.
D. Each manufacturer shall certify to the director that the product or material the manufacturer manufactures or assembles complies with the reflectivity and transmittance requirements of this section.
E. This section does not allow or prohibit the use and placement of federal, state or local certificates on any window as are required or prohibited by applicable laws.
F. A person who sells or installs objects or materials under this section shall set forth in a conspicuous manner that the installation of the object or material to the driver or passenger side window may be illegal in some states.
G. On application from a person required for medical reasons to be shielded from the direct rays of the sun that is supported by written attestation of this fact from a physician licensed pursuant to title 32, chapter 13, 14 or 17, the department may issue an exemption from this section for a motor vehicle belonging to the person or in which the person is a habitual passenger. A person may operate a vehicle or alter the color or reduce the light transmitted through the side or rear windows of a vehicle pursuant to an exemption issued by the director.
H. In this section, unless the context otherwise requires:
1. «Light transmission» means the ratio of the amount of total light, expressed in percentages, that is allowed to pass through the product or material including the glazing to the amount of total light falling on the product or material and the glazing.
2. «Luminous reflectance» means the ratio of the amount of total light, expressed in percentages, that is reflected outward by the product or material to the amount of total light falling on the product or material.
3. «Manufacturer» means either:
(a) A person who engages in the manufacturing or assembling of sun screening products or materials designed to be used in conjunction with vehicle glazing materials.
(b) A person who fabricates, laminates or tempers the glazing material incorporating the capacity to reflect or to reduce the transmittance of light during the manufacturing process.
Power windows or electric windows are automobile windows which can be raised and lowered by pressing a button or switch, as opposed to using a crank handle.
History [ edit ]
Inside driver’s door showing hydraulic cylinder for power window
Window controls on center console between front seats (2005 Saab 9-5)
Packard had introduced hydraulic window lifts (power windows) in fall of 1940, for its new 1941 Packard 180 series cars.   This was a hydro-electric system. In 1941, the Ford Motor Company followed with the first power windows on the Lincoln Custom (only the limousine and seven-passenger sedans).  Cadillac had a straight-electric divider window (but not side windows) on their series 75.
Power assists originated in the need and desire to move convertible body-style tops up and down by some means other than human effort. The earliest power assists were vacuum-operated and were offered on Chrysler Corporation vehicles, particularly the low-cost Plymouth convertibles in the late 1930s.
Shortly before World War II, General Motors developed a central hydraulic pump for working convertible tops.  This system was introduced on 1942 convertibles built by GM. Previously, GM had used a vacuum system which did not have the power to handle increasingly larger and complex (four side-windows vs. only two) convertible top mechanisms.
Chief Engineer of the Buick Division, Charles A. Chayne, «. had introduced an electrically controlled hydraulic system into the 1946 Buick convertibles that provided fingertip operation of the top, door windows, and front seat adjustment».  These systems were based on major hydraulic advances made in military weapons in preparation for World War II.
The «Hydro-Electric» system (windows, front seat adjustment and convertible top) was standard on 1947 model year.  The seat and window assist system became available on GM closed cars (standard on some Cadillac Series 75 models and all Series 60 Specials, commonly called «Fleetwood» beginning with the 1948). The full system was standard only on the high-end GM convertibles made by Oldsmobile, Buick, and Cadillac. It was only available as a package; that is, power assisted windows, front seat, and convertible top (where applicable). This feature can be identified in 1948 and later General Motors model numbers with an «X» at the end, such as the 1951 Cadillac Sixty Special sedan, model 6019X.  The electrically operated hydraulic pump system was shared by Hudson and Packard for their 1948 through 1950 models. The driver’s door contained four buttons in addition to the remaining individual windows. 
Ford also had a similar electro-hydraulic system on higher-end convertibles. Mercury and Ford Sportsman convertibles (with wood trim) were equipped with power windows on four windows from 1946 through 1948 and Mercury and Lincoln by 1951.  These systems were used by other luxury car models (Imperial and Packard) until Chrysler introduced the all-electric operation on the 1951 Imperial. The availability of power windows increased with the use of small, high-torque electric motors.  General Motors also followed with full electric operation in 1954. This included four-way and then six-way seats, which were introduced in 1956. Chevrolet introduced the oddity of power front windows (only) in the 1954 model. Ford also introduced full four-door power windows in sedans in 1954. The full-sized 1955 Nash «Airflyte» models featured optional power windows. 
Electrically-operated vent windows were available as early as 1956 on the Continental Mark II. The 1960s Cadillac Fleetwood came standard with power front and rear vent windows, in addition to standard power side windows, for a total of eight power window controls on the driver’s door panel.
Modern heavy-duty highway tractors frequently have an option for power window controls; however, these are generally what is referred to as «straight air». That is, the compressed air system used for air brakes is also used for the windows. These types of trucks have long used compressed air cylinders for seat height adjustment. In a similar fashion to the electro-hydraulic system, the compressed air is merely released to lower the window and/or seat. The compressed air is then admitted to the respective cylinder to raise the window or seat.
In a typical auto/light truck installation, there is an individual switch at each window and a set of switches in the driver’s door or a-frame pillar, so the driver can operate all the windows. These switches took on many different appearances, from heavy chrome plate to inexpensive plastic.
However, some models like Saab, Volvo, Mazda and Holden have used switches located in the center console, where they are accessible to all the occupants. In this case, the door-mounted switches can be omitted. This also removes the need to produce separate door components and wiring for left and right-hand drive variants.
Operation [ edit ]
Power windows are usually inoperable when the car is not running. This is primarily a security feature. It would be a simple thing to allow electric power windows to be operable when the ignition is turned off, however it would also make the car much easier to steal. Some systems offer the compromise of leaving power applied to the windows until a passenger door is opened at which time the window power is removed.
Hydraulic drive systems could lower the windows at rest, since pressure from the hydraulic system was merely released to lower the window. Raising the windows required an electrically operated pump to operate and introduce pressure at the appropriate cylinder. These systems also required pressure lines to each cylinder (in the doors, as well as on certain cars, to the power seat and a power operated convertible top). Because of the complexity, the system could also leak fluid.
Many modern cars have a time delay feature, first introduced by Cadillac in the 1980s, called «retained accessory power». This allows operation of the windows and some other accessories for ten minutes or so after the engine is stopped. Another feature is the «express-down» window, which allows the window to be fully lowered with one tap on the switch, as opposed to holding the switch down until the window retracts. Many luxury vehicles during the 1990s expanded on this feature, to include «express-up» on the driver’s window, and recently, some manufacturers have added the feature on all window switches for all passengers’ convenience. This is done by activating the switch until a «click» response is felt.
Power windows have become so common that by 2008, some automakers eliminated hand crank windows from all their models. So many vehicles now have power windows that some people no longer understand the (formerly) common sign from another driver of using their hand to simulate moving a window crank to indicate that they wish to speak with someone when stopped at a light or in a parking lot. The 2008 Audi RS4 sold in Europe, however, still has roll-up windows for the rear doors although its counterpart sold in the U.S. has power windows for all doors. 
Safety [ edit ]
Power windows have come under some scrutiny after several fatal accidents in which children’s necks have become trapped, leading to suffocation. Some designs place the switch in a location on a hand rest where it can be accidentally triggered by a child climbing to place his or her head out of the window. To prevent this, many vehicles feature a driver-controlled lockout switch, preventing rear-seat passengers (usually smaller children) from accidentally triggering the switches. This also prevents children from playing with them and pets riding with their heads out windows from activating the power window switch.
Starting with the 2008 model year, U.S. government regulations required automakers to install safety mechanisms to improve child safety.  However, the rules do not prevent all potential injuries to a hand, finger, or even a child’s head, if someone deliberately holds the switch when the window is closing. In 2009, the U.S. auto safety administration tentatively decided against requiring all cars to have automatic reversing power windows if they sense an obstruction while closing.  Proposed requirements concern automatic («one-touch up») window systems, but most vehicles with this feature already have automatic-reversing.  The federal government made a written contract that all automakers should make the lever switches (as opposed to the rocker and toggle switches) standard on all new vehicles by 1 October 2010. 
References [ edit ]
- ^ Ward, James Arthur (1995). The Fall of Packard Motor Car Company. Stanford University Press. ISBN978-0-8047-2457-9 .
- ^ 1941 Packard Super 8 series 180 Sales Brochure, page 2
- Donelly, Jim (August 2008). «Needing a Lift, (Maybe) Finding It». Hemmings Classic Car . Retrieved 26 December 2012 .
- «GM convertible windows powered up». Collectible Automobile: 14. June 2008.
- «Buick adds electrically controlled hydraulic systems». Collectible Automobile: 48. April 2010.
- Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (8 October 2007). «1947 Cadillac Series 62 Convertible». HowStuffWorks com. Archived from the original on 20 February 2011 . Retrieved 5 July 2010 . > : |author= has generic name (help)
- Hendry, Maurice (1975). Cadillac, The Complete History. Random House. ISBN9780517422816 .
- «1949 Hudson Owners Manual». www.oldcarbrochures.com. p. 67 . Retrieved 26 December 2012 .
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- Donnelly, Jim (January 2009). «A Cut Above». Hemmings Classic Car . Retrieved 26 December 2012 .
- «Nash steals march in ‘dream cars’ «. Life. Vol. 38, no. 16. 18 April 1955. p. 93 . Retrieved 26 December 2012 .
- «2008 BMW M3 vs. 2007 Audi RS 4, 2008 M-B C63 AMG Comparison Tests». Car and Driver: 2. December 2007 . Retrieved 26 December 2012 .
- «Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems». Federal Register . Retrieved 2 November 2018 .
- Kroll, Kathryn (28 August 2009). «Safety agency: Reversible auto windows unnecessary». The Plain Dealer . Retrieved 26 December 2012 .
- «Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems». National Highway Traffic Safety Administration . Retrieved 5 July 2010 .
- «Q&As: Power windows and child safety». Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. November 2009 . Retrieved 5 July 2010 .
External links [ edit ]
- Power Windows Are Perilous (CBS News)
- Fixing Power Windows
- Nice, Karim. «How Power Windows Work.» 29 January 2001. HowStuffWorks.com