What is the lifespan of an electric car battery?
Your guide to electric car battery capacity and lifespan.
Electric car batteries are usually lithium-ion batteries, similar to the battery in your mobile phone. Electric vehicle batteries can be recharged by connecting them to a power supply and then used to power your car’s electric motor and wheels.
How do you measure EV battery capacity?
You measure an electric vehicle’s battery capacity in kilowatt-hours (kWh). You might recognise it as the same unit that your home’s electricity meter uses to show you how much you’ve used.
What is the average capacity for an EV battery?
The average capacity for an EV battery is around 40kWh, but you can get some up to 100kWh. Generally, the larger the battery capacity the further your electric car can drive before it needs to recharge.
What is the lifespan of an electric car battery?
EV batteries are expected to last around 500,000 miles. Electric car batteries degrade over time as they’re charged, but you can extend your battery’s lifespan.
One of the benefits of electric car batteries is that they can be recycled once they need replacing.
How do you extend an electric car battery’s lifespan?
Charge your EV overnight.
Charging your electric car overnight using a 7kW EV home charger is more effective than using rapid or ultra fast chargers as they can reduce the capacity of your battery.
Avoid overcharging your electric car.
By charging your EV to around 80% rather than 100%, the battery will last longer over time. Plus avoid waiting until your battery is completely empty before you charge it to avoid battery degradation and battery capacity reduction.
Accelerate smoothly in your EV.
Accelerating too harshly can impact your battery performance and lifespan, so don’t take off too rapidly at the lights. Take off smoothly and you’ll help to increase your battery’s longevity.
Can you repair an EV battery?
It is possible to repair an EV battery, however there aren’t many companies offering that service in the UK at the moment. Electric car batteries are made up of modules, which can be repaired rather than replacing the whole battery.
How much does it cost to replace an electric car battery?
The cost of replacing your EV battery can vary depending on the make and model of your car. If you need to replace your battery within the warranty period then your car manufacturer should replace it at no extra cost.
Outside of your warranty you’ll need to talk to your EV’s manufacturer to get a quote for battery replacement.
Why are electric car batteries so expensive?
Inside an EV battery are lots of very rare and expensive metals which means they cost a lot to produce when compared to diesel and petrol car engines. The costs are coming down however it will be a while until EVs become as cheap as petrol equivalents.
What is a solid state battery?
They represent the next big leap in electric car battery technology. Solid state batteries will hopefully be able to deliver a lot more range in a smaller package. Solid state batteries use a solid electrolyte rather than the liquid or polymer found in current lithium-ion batteries.
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What is the lifespan of an electric car battery?
Thanks to the considerable progress made year after year, lithium-ion batteries stand up very well to the test of time. With this in mind, how long does a battery last? What advice is there when it comes to extending lifespan as much as possible? In this in-depth guide, the lithium-ion battery in the floor of your electric vehicle reveals the secrets of its surprising longevity.
by Renault Group
The average lifespan of an electric vehicle battery
So how well does an electric vehicle stand up to the test of time? Is it linked to the life cycle of the battery inside the vehicle? These questions fuel conversations around the electric vehicle… But you do need to be sure that you’re talking about the same thing!
Car battery, electric car battery, motor longevity… Let’s not get it all mixed up!
An electric car battery is nothing like the conventional rectangular unit that is the regular “car battery” you’ll find next to a combustion engine. Let’s not get the lifespan of an electric vehicle motor mixed up with that of the battery that powers it, either. The motor of an electric vehicle, in theory, has a very long life. After all, the issue of lifespan is primarily about the lithium-ion battery itself.
What’s the lifespan of a lithium-ion battery?
First of all, there are several types of battery for electric vehicles. These days, most electric vehicles are powered by batteries called “lithium-ion,” which are similar to those that power laptops and smartphones but with much greater capacity!
When we talk about how long things last, we need to shine a light on the intrinsic characteristics of the battery and the manufacturer’s very high standards for achieving optimal automotive use. The end of the “automotive” life of a lithium-ion electric car battery does not mean that its range drops completely. Instead, there’s a gradual decline in the battery’s capacity as it racks up charging/draining cycles.
As a pioneer of electromobility, Groupe Renault estimates that the lifespan of its batteries – for automotive use – is around ten years. But this doesn’t mean the end of the battery’s life. It still has plenty of energy to spare in its “second life” which can add on another ten years: stationary energy battery storage system, vehicle electrification, short-circuit green energy distribution, etc.
What factors affect battery lifespan?
Temperature affects lithium-ion batteries significantly, but it’s important to distinguish between long-term battery wear (over its lifespan) and short-term battery performance (notably, its charging time). In the long term, heat can have a negative effect on battery lifespan, whereas it does not affect performance. Conversely, very low temperatures can have an impact on the short-term performance of electric vehicle batteries. But it will have absolutely no impact on how long the battery lasts, meaning that even frequent extreme cold won’t shorten its lifespan.
Parking for extended periods
Other factors are at play too. This one might seem obvious, but it’s still worth bearing in mind: battery wear occurs when the battery is in use! That said, leaving an electric car parked for extended periods in high temperatures and/or when the battery is fully charged can also have a negative impact on how long it lasts.
Trickle charging and frequent charging are factors worth bearing in mind too. Trying to keep the battery charge topped up by hooking the car up to the charging point for short charges will, in the long term, have a detrimental effect. Finally, the battery deteriorates when it generates heat too often, which occurs during frequent charging at ultra-fast charging points.
But all of these variables can be controlled with the right usage habits.
Maintaining an electric vehicle battery
What are the actual rules for keeping a lithium-ion battery from getting old before its time? There’s a series of dos and don’ts to embrace to keep your electric vehicle battery in good shape.
A few pieces of advice to maintain a battery and extend its lifespan
A few routine dos and don’ts can optimize the battery’s lifespan. When it comes to temperature control, if the vehicle is parked for a particularly long time, it’s advisable to park it in an area shaded from direct sunlight and raised temperatures if possible. Another thing to do in such a case: keep the maximum charge not at 100%, but below 80% instead. It’s not mandatory, but if you think about it, do it!
In terms of charging frequency, it’s pointless to fully charge every evening for trips that total less than 50 kilometers per day. Once a week should be enough. Go ahead and make the most of the battery at all stages of the charging cycle rather than keeping the level high by charging frequently.
To help make life easier for electric car drivers, manufacturers generally offer apps or online platforms to manage remote charging. At Renault for example, the MY Renault app allows you to program the charging process, track its progress, and view a statement showing the associated electricity consumption. By charging the vehicle during off-peak times, for example, the driver can have the car 80% recharged by the following morning. In “rapid charge” mode on major roads, a level of 80% is also advisable. It also makes sense economically as charging is generally billed in units of time on these charging points. The charging speed is also reduced considerably between 80 and 100%. All of the charging information accessible via MY Renault helps the driver to form good battery management habits to keep the battery in good shape for as long as possible.
What charging power level will keep the battery of an electric car in good shape?
What’s the right way to charge a vehicle battery? The type of charge for an electric car, meaning the power delivered by the charging point, has a role to play in how long the battery lasts. Charging at fast-charge charging points that are “Combo CCS”-compatible, like those found at highway service stations deliver a lot of energy within a short period of time. But it’s not recommended to make this your main electric car charging mode as it tends to generate heat in the battery. Renault is addressing this issue with active cooling ventilation on the ZOE and water cooling on the Twingo Electric. Fast charging, which is often billed by the minute, can also end up being costly. In public places, the charging points to favor are the AC ones, which account for the vast majority of facilities around. They are suitable for normal, daily use. Favoring a charge at a lower power level at these charging points will help the lithium-ion battery to last longer, while also going easy on your wallet.
How to replace an out an electric car battery?
When it comes to electric vehicle maintenance, don’t get lithium-ion batteries mixed up with combustion-engine vehicle batteries that you can buy in a store and easily install yourself. The battery unit of an electric vehicle is unwieldy, heavy, hard to access, and not easily transported from one place to another. Its cells contain a large amount of electricity, which makes it hazardous to handle without the right equipment and tools. Switching it out – which is not a part of normal maintenance – cannot be done without the services of an accredited mechanic in a garage.
The second life of batteries
Once it has reached the end of its “automotive” life, the lithium-ion battery is ready for a second life. Its performance is still enough to serve an array of purposes like stationary energy storage. With an increasingly ambitious view to the circular economy, Renault is transforming its site in Flins, France, to set up the Re-Factory, Europe’s first circular economy factory dedicated to mobility. The manufacturer is also carrying out very promising experiments in Belle-Île-en-Mer and Porto Santo. These islands, which used to be reliant on fossil fuels, are gradually becoming truly smart islands. They are the laboratory for full-scale tests on storage using electric vehicle batteries and the local distribution of green electricity produced by local renewable energy sources.
Other programs, like Advanced Battery Storage for example, make use of electric vehicle batteries to balance out the network in real time, so that as much low-carbon electricity as possible can be incorporated. Another initiative on the Seine in Paris involves reconditioned batteries fitted into the pleasure boats in the Paris Yacht Marina.
Having looked at the capacity of the battery to be repaired or used for other purposes, Groupe Renault pays for and arranges for it to be recycled by its accredited partners. Governed by particularly stringent regulations, the recycling of batteries from electric cars meets a range of requirements. Unlike the batteries used in other devices, all of the battery cells that power the electric vehicle are salvaged. This guarantees record recycling efficiency. Not least, it makes it possible to recover precious metals like nickel and cobalt for subsequent use.
How does the future of electric car batteries look?
Will the future be all about solid-state batteries? They set themselves apart from lithium-ion batteries due to their solid rather than liquid electrolytes and give electric vehicles higher energy storage capacity. But they are not the only solution. Renault is opting for multiple technologies that complement one another. This is the case with the fuel cell for the hydrogen car, for example!
Continuous improvements are also made to the current batteries. For many years now, Renault has been working on optimizing the architecture and chemical composition of batteries to gain density and pack more energy into the same amount of space, like on the Renault ZOE. This adds to the innovations aimed at reducing the impact of external factors on longevity, like with the water-cooling system of the Twingo Electric battery. When you factor in a second, post-automotive, life designed to store green electricity from fluctuating renewable sources, the battery’s ability to stand up to the test of time is in line with a real circular economy approach.
How Long Do Electric Vehicle Batteries Last?
The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is accelerating globally, and experts believe we are reaching the “tipping point” of fast mainstream acceptance. In fact, more than two-thirds of all passenger car sales worldwide are expected to be electric vehicles by 2040, according to popular surveys.
So what’s driving EV adoption so quickly? Simply said, EVs are more widely available, reasonably priced, and appealing than ever before. And the evolution of EV batteries the most costly component of an EV is largely responsible for these advancements.
Battery prices have dropped by 89 percent since 2010, owing to rapid advancements in battery technology over the last decade. EV battery cells are much more durable than you may believe, much like the batteries in your laptop, tablet, and smartphone. Additionally, you may prolong the battery life of your EV for a very long time with the right maintenance.
But how long do electric car batteries last? What actions may you take to lengthen its lifespan, and what might those actions be? Learn all you need to understand about battery performance in the subsequent sections, along with the best techniques you can employ to make the most of your EV for many years to come.
What are EV batteries?
An electric car battery acts as an energy storehouse in order to transmit power to an engine that runs on alternating or continuous currents. But this is only a small part of its significance. The cars’ sustainability and freedom from reliance on fossil fuels are both a result of the battery. The distance a car can go before needing a charge, the amount of time it takes to charge an EV, and the cost are all dependent on batteries. Due to their high energy density in relation to weight, lithium-ion, and lithium-polymer batteries are the most popular battery types in contemporary electric cars. Lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, zinc-air, and sodium nickel chloride batteries are further types of rechargeable batteries utilized in electric cars.
You might be interested in knowing the battery’s weight now that you are familiar with its fundamentals. So, an EV battery typically weighs around 1,000 pounds. Some batteries are over 2,000 pounds in weight. The Hummer EV battery, which weighs over 2,923 pounds, is the heaviest EV battery. The weight is determined by the battery’s size, type, and manufacturer.
Batteries have a number of environmental drawbacks, starting with the fact that charging batteries requires electricity, which may be produced by coal-fired or nuclear power plants. Additionally, having a negative influence on the environment, mining for battery chemicals can result in harmful materials leaking into rivers. Cobalt, a vital component of batteries, presently originates from quarries in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where rights violations and the exploitation of child labor have been recorded by organizations like Amnesty. This means that the batteries have a human cost as well. While there are still few chances for battery recycling, some industry observers fear that cobalt supplies are already running low and won’t be able to keep up with demand.
How long do EV batteries last?
According to current projections, the majority of EV batteries will last between 10 and 20 years without needing to be changed. However, a poll found that many prospective EV purchasers had concerns about battery longevity and the cost of battery replacement. Just under half of those who are thinking about buying an electric car believe that the battery will last for fewer than 65,000 kilometers on average.
Companies may produce larger batteries with higher energy potential as EV rechargeable batteries become more affordable to produce, which in turn enhances their mile range. Additionally, the more advanced technology reduces battery deterioration, which keeps the full capability of the battery closer to that of a brand-new battery over time. Because the mileage range of contemporary batteries has already improved significantly, even as they age, they will continue to have a larger mileage capacity than batteries from only a few years ago. A lithium-ion battery seldom has to be replaced in its whole as it ages since it is made up of several separate cells. Instead, merely replacing dead cells will save you cash.
Considering current trends, we can be certain that a significant shift from conventional to electric vehicles will occur in the near future, owing to advancements in EV charging technologies. Over the past several years, numerous new solutions have been introduced to the market, including smart EV charging management features, automated battery heating, quick charging, and many more.
EV Battery’s Second Life
The life of electric car batteries is challenging. Lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles deteriorate significantly within the initial five years of usage and are often intended for a decade of usable life despite being subjected to severe temperature applications, several partial cycles annually, and fluctuating leakage currents. Even if they no longer fulfil the performance requirements for EVs, which generally call for retaining 80% of total usable capacity and attaining a resting self-discharge rate of just 5% over a 24-hour period, these batteries can nevertheless have a second life. Such batteries can still function well enough to support less demanding applications, including stationary energy storage, after being remanufactured.
Manufacturers have three alternatives when an EV battery approaches the end of its useful initial life: discard it, recover the precious metals, or reuse it. Packs are most commonly disposed of if they are outdated or if they are located in areas without the requisite market infrastructure. If electrodes are made of extremely valuable metals like cobalt and nickel, recycling may make sense. The entire development of new methods that recover additional material is still pending.
Electric vehicles’ battery lifespan
Electric car battery life expectancy is what we discuss in this section. The manufacturer’s warranty offers the most straightforward method of determining an electric car battery’s lifespan without resorting to guesswork. No manufacturer wants to be saddled with the expense of upgrading a battery pack because they misjudged the pack’s resilience and durability. As a result, the battery’s limited warranty offers information about the minimal life expectancy that the manufacturer believes to exist for the average pack.
A battery guarantee with a minimum of eight years and 100,000 miles is standard on all EVs sold today. According to the model, Tesla, for example, provides a battery guarantee that lasts eight years and covers up to 100,000 to 150,000 kilometers.
By adding to a battery storage system, an EV battery that is no longer able to power a car may be used to power a house or other structure. The energy from batteries is stored in a battery energy storage system so it may be used later.
You may even combine it with an EV battery if you power your house with sustainable energy sources like solar or wind. You can save it for later use at night or in low-light conditions. even during the daytime, in addition to solar or wind power. You may cut back on your grid usage and save money on your energy bills by using this form of energy production.
How to Make EV Batteries Last Longer
Although EV batteries are inherently robust, there are several steps owners may take to extend battery longevity.
1. Adhere to EV Manufacturer Recommendations
To start, it’s crucial to adhere to your EV’s unique instructions for the best battery performance and to keep the software on your car up to date. Each EV manufacturer has its own set of recommended charging and operation procedures because they all employ various battery compositions and cooling techniques.
2. Keep the temperature reasonable
Due to reduced operating temperatures, EVs with liquid-cooled cells see longer battery life maintenance. An effective strategy for extending battery life is to store and use your EV in temperate climates. As a car spends the majority of its life parked, putting it in a garage or a place that gets plenty of shade can assist, even if you live in a warm environment.
3. Reduce Quick Charging
It’s acceptable to sometimes use direct current rapid charging (DCRC) to charge your car, but if you can reduce the frequency of this charging technique, your battery is likely to last longer. Fortunately, EV Connect provides a range of charging points to ensure a number of effective choices for your car. Also, keep in mind that using your EV frequently is not the main cause of battery degeneration.
Frequently Asked Question
1. What transpires while an EV battery is not used for long?
With existing EVs seeing an average range loss of 2% per year, EV batteries will gradually lose capacity as time passes. The driving range may clearly decrease after a long period of time.
2. How many batteries do electric cars have?
In electric cars, there are two batteries. Both the power generating and electrical operations are handled by separate batteries in electric vehicles. Most electric and hybrid electric cars require a conventional battery to initiate movement, regardless of the range they offer. That is an ordinary lead-acid 12-volt battery.
3. What voltage is the battery in an electric car?
Each electric vehicle’s battery is a different voltage, however battery packs typically range from 400 to 800 volts (V). Battery voltage has been the subject of numerous recent conversations, and EV specialists have been disputing the distinctions between 400V and 800V rechargeable batteries. Most often, 800V car batteries have been added to expensive EVs to speed up Level 3 direct current rapid charging.
4. What is the most up-to-date EV battery technology?
The chemical liquids included in current Li-ion batteries would not be used in battery cells; instead, a ceramic electrolyte would be used. For an EV battery’s operation, this has significant ramifications. In addition to allowing for more energy-dense rechargeable batteries with a longer lifespan and even turbo charging, it significantly lowers the possibility of fire.
For environmentally aware consumers, one of the most intriguing parts of EV battery deterioration is the possibility of continued battery use after they have left your EV. These strong EV batteries have enough life to couple with solar energy and provide backup energy for your house even as they lose their ability to power a car (often at 70% of their full charge capability). Even discarded batteries are gathered or purchased by certain manufacturers to operate other projects, such as sports arenas, responsibly. You may rest easy knowing that your EV’s electricity is sustainable for a very long time after it leaves the car.
The cost of EV batteries is dropping while they also last longer, can cover more distance on a single charge, and are more durable. With each passing year, technology advances. Experts already predict that EV batteries will last longer than ICE components. The good news is that your electric vehicle (EV) battery will meet your demands for many years to come and that it can even be recycled sustainably once it has powered your car.